Today there are a number of inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations in the intellectual property area, of which some are particularly active in the fight against counterfeiting. The following organizations are some of those involved:
European Commission : : http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm
A great deal of the work of the Commission is devoted to guaranteeing the effective rights associated with intellectual property. Two recent legal rulings have had the effect of coordinating certain aspects of the application of intellectual property rights. 1.The Ruling of the Council (CE 1383/2003) on the intervention of the customs authorities regarding goods suspected of offending certain intellectual property rights. 2.Directive 2004/38/CE on the respecting of intellectual property rights, which have to be implemented by the member states of the European Union, before 30th April 2006.
World Trade Organization (WTO) : www.wto.org
Founded in 1995 and succeeding the General Agreement on Customs Tariffs and Trade (GATT), this international organization handles the rules governing trade between countries. The WTO administers the agreement on the aspects of intellectual property which affect trade (ADPICS Agreement), adopted during the Uruguay Round. This agreement reaffirms certain general principles contained in international conventions.
International Criminal Police Organisation (ICPO-Interpol) : www.interpol.int
This organization was founded in 1923 to improve and assist cross-border cooperation between criminal police services. This is the most important international police organization in the world. Within it, there is an action group whose main mission is to fight and assist in international action in deterring criminality in the area of intellectual property (GAICPI). In addition, the GAICPI strives to improve coordination in questions of intellectual property rights, between the police, customs and companies.
World Customs Organisation (WCO) : http://www.wcoomd.org/
This is an independent, intergovernmental organisation whose mission is to improve the efficiency of customs administration. The WCO has created “The Strategic Group in Matters of Intellectual Property Rights.” Its members are mostly international companies. This organization collects global information on the phenomenon of counterfeiting, from a customs standpoint.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) : http://wipo.org
This is one of the United Nations' 16 specialist agencies, whose mission is to promote the protection of intellectual property around the world, through the cooperation of countries and even of any other international organization. In addition, a certain number of basic treaties on intellectual property matters, for example, The Convention of the Union of Paris, The Convention of Bern, The Agreements of Madrid and The Hague, are all administered by WIPO.
The International Anticounterfeiting Coalition (IACC): http://iacc.org
Founded in Los Angeles in 1978, this international organization currently has over 300 members and devotes itself exclusively to the struggle against counterfeiting and the pirating of goods. They belong to the commercial sector of industry and are involved in a variety of different fields (automobile, apparel, luxury goods, food, software, entertainment...). For example, members include Esso, Walt Disney, Coca Cola, Shell, Johnny Walker... Its mission is to reinforce the laws relating to intellectual property, by participating in regional and international programmes on standards.
American Association of Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA) : www.aipla.org
This is an American association of members of the Bar. It has around 14,000 members made up of lawyers offering services in the area of intellectual property. It organizes conferences, debates and publishes works relating to intellectual property. In addition, the AIPLA contributes to the development of American policies in this area.
Anti-Counterfeiting Group (ACG): www.a-cg.com
This is a professional association located in the UK made up of around 200 manufacturers and distributors of branded products, and consultancies in intellectual property. It describes its activities as mainly: “consisting in supporting and coordinating the work of the courts and administrations which apply the law.” In addition, it undertakes many actions in the struggle against counterfeiting.
European Brands Association (AIM) : www.aim.be
This association represents the branded products industries of Europe. It comprises about 1,800 companies of all sizes and from a variety of fields. Its headquarters is in Belgium. Its priorities are the protection and application of intellectual property rights and the struggle against counterfeiting. To do this, the AIM works closely with consumers in the defence of their rights.
Global Anti-Counterfeiting Network (GACG): www.gacg.org
This is a truly worldwide network, linking national and/or regional organizations, whose common objective is the fight against counterfeiting. It is a network of information exchange, international debates on ideas and cooperation with a view to resolving the various difficulties concerning counterfeiting.
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) : http://www.iccwbo.org
Represents business circles all over the world. In 1985, an Office of Enquiry into Counterfeiting was created, enabling the centralization and coordination of information received from industry and victims of counterfeiting from all over the world. This counterfeiting enquiry Office cooperates actively with national police forces and customs authorities on matters of prevention and the application of rights. Multinationals, professional associations, legal practices, consultants and technical suppliers fighting counterfeiting collaborate closely with this Office. In addition, it has extended its intervention to offences involving the area of intellectual property. Among its activities, the Office conducts enquiries into the origins and distribution of counterfeit products.
International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) : www.iipa.com
This is a group of companies from the private sector founded in 1984, whose main objective is to represent the copyright industries in the United States, who produce and distribute works protected by copyright, all over the world.
International Trademark Association (INTA) : www.inta.org
A non-profit organisation with its head office in New York. It represents around 4,200 members, companies, industrial property consultants and tries to influence government policy on commercial trademark issues. The association gives priority to the application of intellectual property rights and the struggle against counterfeiting.
European Communities Trademark Association (ECTA) : www.ecta.org
An organisation made up of professionals in European law. It comprises around 1,300 members from 80 countries. ECTA has established specialized committees, including one particularly responsible for the fight against counterfeiting.
Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys (ITMA): www.itma.org.uk
British organisation specialized in the field of commercial trademarks.
International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (AIPPI) : www.aippi.org
Created in 1897, this organisation combines different trade bodies, such as lawyers, patent and trademark consultants, judges, scientists, companies... Today, the association has over 8,000 members representing over 100 countries, structures in 64 national groups. Its head office is in Zurich (Switzerland). For many years, the AIPPA has been examining national legislation with a view to proposing harmonization measures. Showing a strong interest in questions related to the application of intellectual property rights, it has a special committee named The Committee for the Application of Intellectual Property Rights.
National Anti-Counterfeiting Committee (CNAC) : http://www.contrefacon-danger.com/
Committee founded in 1995 in order to improve the efficacy of actions undertaken by various administrations and professionals to restrain counterfeiting as regards all intellectual property rights.
Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry (FHS): www.fhs.ch
This Federation includes a commission called the “Commission on Counterfeiting” whose objective is to assist companies affected by counterfeiting. It adopts both a legal and a pragmatic approach. Its impact is international by assuring its assistance to authorities of all countries affected by watch counterfeiting. Its main missions are:
- providing samples of counterfeit products
- in-depth technical analysis of counterfeit products
- intervention with the authorities of countries affected
- participation in the reinforcement of legislation
- criminal and legal action alongside affected companies
- preventive measures.
Centre for Industrial Industrial Property Studies (CEIPE): www.ceipi.edu
The CEIPI is a department of a French university (Robert Schuman University) in Strasbourg. This centre's objective is to train specialists in industrial property law.
Union des fabricants (UDF) : www.unifab.com
This Union is constituted by French companies and professional federations of all sectors combined. It behaves as an “observatory” of intellectual property rights. It is also an information exchange-point. On a more pragmatic basis, it maintains concrete links with companies, by means of an authentication service with customs authorities.